2004 - 2014 Lamborghini Gallardo
With the ID1300x and ID1700x setting the current standard for high flow injectors, and the recent release of the ID1050x, many are asking what makes these injectors perform at such high levels.
The simple answer is intent. It is no surprise that an R-Compound tire designed for track use will outperform a standard street tire, even if both come from the same manufacturer.
The same can be said for the performance of the ID1050x, ID1300x and ID1700x, which are designed specifically for motorsport use.
The partnership of Injector Dynamics and Bosch Motorsport was formed to combine the unique abilities of two industry leaders, and offer the resulting technology to a new breed of racers.
From import vs domestic drags, to time attack and airport racing, these high boost alcohol fueled engines exceed the capabilities of re-purposed production car parts, creating the need for a purpose built high flow motorsport injector.
Technology is nothing, until it provides solutions. In the case of the ID1300x and ID1700x, our customers made the needs of the market clear. Our job was to pay attention, and develop solutions that would meet those needs. Those needs, and the solutions are described below.
The complexity of modern engines often exceeds the capability of aftermarket ECU’s, necessitating the use of OE based hardware and strategies. Peak and Hold injectors, being decades old technology, are not supported by modern hardware, and so the X Series injectors are based on the high impedance Bosch EV-14 architecture.
While achieving high flow may seem easy, it poses significant challenges if the resulting dynamic response is to be useful.
Much like the heads on your engine, the valve in the injector can only be opened so far before other problems arise. The challenge then becomes balancing flow against acceptable operating characteristics.
In the case of the ID1300x, all available parameters were fine tuned to achieve the best results, with the ultimate flow limited to ≈ 1300 cc/min to avoid degrading the characteristics critical to operation in a motorsport environment.
Namely, voltage sensitivity and pressure sensitivity described below, and low flow linearity and minimum fuel mass.
At the time of its release, the ID1300x was the highest flowing all fuel compatible high impedance injector on the market.
Racers being what they are – they quickly ran past the limits of the ID1300x, requiring even higher flow.
The ID1700x came next, incorporating unique solutions to the challenges encountered during development of the ID1300x. Namely, the problem of achieving higher flow without degrading critical operating parameters.
A study was conducted to quantify numerous modifications to the flow path, and resulted in a unique valve and seat assembly, parts of which are manufactured in house by Injector Dynamics. The end result is increased flow without the need to “open the valve” excessively.
At the end of the nearly two year development process, eighteen different variations had been built and tested. Combined with numerous “tunable” parameters, more than 100 variations were tested, and the results speak for themselves, with the ID1700x being used on record setting cars in nearly every form of racing.
Broad Operating Range
If there is one requirement that stands out above the rest, it is the capacity for a broad operating range. Unlike OE applications, where an injector is designed for specific operating conditions, a motorsport offering requires that an injector serve everything from a twin turbo V8 on alcohol, to a 14,000 RPM Hayabusa engine on gasoline.
This requirement is met by offering consistent operation across a wide pressure range, allowing the end user to change the effective flow rate.
While most injectors will run static at high pressure on a test bench, few will perform well dynamically at those same pressures, and even fewer at high temperature with less than ideal battery voltage.
In the case of the ID1300x, this challenge was met with the combination of a high current coil, optimization of numerous internal parameters, and an ultimate flow limitation of ≈ 1300 cc/min at 3 bar. The end result is an injector with impeccable manners, excellent pressure and voltage sensitivity, and a flow rate of ≈ 1900 cc/min at 6 bar.
In the case of the ID1700x, optimization of tunable parameters was not enough, and unique solutions were required.
The ID1700x features a more powerful proprietary magnetic circuit, with parts manufactured in house by Injector Dynamics.
The result is pressure and voltage sensitivity exceeding that of the ID1300x, requiring only 9 volts to open consistently at 6 bar, and a flow rate of ≈ 2640 cc/min at 7 bar.
The ID1050x – the latest addition to the X Series – offers an even greater range, requiring only 8 volts for consistent operation at 8 bar, with an extended range of 1940 cc/min at 10 bar.
While voltage requirements and ultimate pressure capability may seem little more than bragging rights, these capabilities become critical when trying to hot start a heat soaked engine with a high pressure fuel system and a lightweight racing battery.
(We know at least a few of you are nodding in agreement as you remember that long day on the dyno…)
Compatibility With all Automotive Fuels
Another key requirement is compatibility with all automotive fuels.
From MTBE, to ethanol, the X Series are compatible with everything but dirt. Every dimensionally critical part inside of the X Series is made from corrosion resistant material, making them compatible with all fuels, and providing better long term consistency when used with corrosive fuels.
Talk is cheap, and at the end of the race weekend, results are all that matter.
After two years on the market, ID1300x equipped cars have set records in nearly every form of racing, from snowmobile drags, to land speed motorcycles.
The ID1700x accomplished the same within 6 months, and coming from the same technical partnership that created them, we expect the same from the ID1050x.
Ask yourself – what is your intent? Are you taking grandma to the grocery store, or trying to win a race? Choose your injectors (And tires…) appropriately.
The ID1700x was designed to be an all fuel compatible injector, capable of very high flow rates. As such, it will most often be used to deliver E85 to boosted engines, or occasionally, gasoline in extreme high horsepower applications. Neither of these applications requires extended linearity at low flow rates, and so this was given a proportionately lower priority during the design process.
The ID1700x will deliver flawless stoichiometric idle and cruise mixtures on E85, but like the ID2000, should not be expected to do so on gasoline.
If you need flawless drivability on gasoline, the ID1300x will provide this, and is capable of approximately 150hp per injector on E85.
Nominal Flow Rate – 1725cc/min @ 3.0 Bar (43.5 psi) Using Iso-Octane at 52 Degrees C (125 Degrees F)
Maximum Differential Fuel Pressure – 7.0 Bar (101.5 psi)
Fuel Compatibility – Compatible with Methanol/Ethanol/All Known Hydrocarbon Fuels.
Electrical Connector – USCAR
The ID2600-XDS was developed specifically for use with liquid fuels, featuring corrosion resistant internals, and long term compatibility with ethanol and methanol.
The ID2600-XDS has the highest flow rate of any injector offered by Bosch, and flows 50% more than the ID1700x.
The ID2600-XDS benefits from Dual Slope Matching, a method of matching the flow rate in both the linear, and nonlinear operating range, providing better cylinder to cylinder consistency at low pulse widths.
What is Dual Slope Matching?
Dual Slope Matching is a method of matching injectors that provides the best possible cylinder to cylinder fueling across the entire operating range.
Traditionally, injectors were matched based on static flow rate alone, which resulted in large deviations at low pulse widths.
Injector Dynamics introduced Slope Intercept Matching over a decade ago, which provided even cylinder to cylinder fueling across the linear operating range of the injector.
With the progression of turbo technology, and increased use of alcohol fuels, greater demands are placed on fuel injectors, and they are often required to deliver fuel well outside of their linear operating range.
The concept of Dual Slope Matching extends the injector matching into the lower non linear operating range. Dual Slope Matching was conceived by Aaron Looft of Injector Dynamics, who was inspired by the dual slope injector characterization model used by Ford.
How Does Dual Slope Matching Work?
Let’s first consider static flow matching which was the industry standard prior to Injector Dynamics.
The graph below shows the dynamic response of two hypothetical 1500 cc/min injectors within their linear operating range. One with an offset (Dead time, latency, etc.) of 0.95 milliseconds, and one with an offset of 0.85 milliseconds.
The slope of both lines is the same, as they have the same flow rate, but the difference in offset results in the injector with the higher offset delivering 2.5 uL less fuel per injection event. At a pulse width of 19msec, which equals 90% duty cycle at 6,000 rpm, 2.5ul amounts to a mere 0.6% difference in flow between the two injectors, but at 2msec, that same 2.5ul difference amounts to a 9.5% difference!
Slope Intercept matching as introduced by Injector Dynamics in 2007 solved this problem by matching injectors based on flow rate (Slope) and offset (Intercept) providing even cylinder to cylinder fueling across the linear operating range.
Moving on to the non linear operating range, the graph below shows a pair of 1500cc injectors matched using the Injector Dynamics Slope Intercept method. Both injectors have the same flow rate and offset, but in the non linear range, the flow deviates from the straight line shown in the graph above. In this case, the flow rate, or slope of each injector in the non linear range is 1530cc/min and 1470cc/min representing a spread of +/- 2%.
As the graph clearly shows, the difference between the two injectors increases as pulse width decreases.
Shown as percent difference in flow, we see that even though the injectors are matched perfectly in the linear operating range, the difference in slope in the non linear range results in a flow mismatch that is magnified as the pulse-width decreases, becoming substantial at the very lowest pulse widths.
How Well Does This Work in Practice?
Moving from hypothetical injectors to a real world application, the response in the non linear range is considerably less orderly than shown in the graphs above, and is quantified using a technique called Least Squares Linear Regression – Which is a fancy way of saying straight line approximation.
By approximating the response in the non linear range, and matching sets accordingly, the best possible cylinder to cylinder fueling is realized across the entire operating range.
Using the ID2600-XDS as an example, the traditional Slope Intercept method of matching results in an average deviation of +/-5.1% in the non linear range, while the new method of Dual Slope Matching has reduced this to +/-1.4%
In a perfect world, this deviation would not exist at all, but for those of us who live (And tune!) in the real world, Dual Slope Matching represents a large step forward, and we are proud to offer it to the market.
Nominal Flow Rate – 2600cc/min @ 3.0 Bar (43.5 psi)
Maximum Differential Fuel Pressure – 9.0 Bar (130.5 psi) – Requires Minimum 11volt.
Fuel Compatibility – Compatible with Methanol/Ethanol/All Known Hydrocarbons. NOT Compatible with Ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME) or Nitro Methane
Electrical Connector – USCAR